An analysis of the expectations of the problems at the turn of the century

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An analysis of the expectations of the problems at the turn of the century

Looking Back at the Age of Extremes John Meakin Join me for a few minutes in a journey back in time to the beginning of this century.

We are in Paris, the year isand we are in an optimistic, celebratory mood. The reason for the fifth Paris International Exposition, one of the largest and most ambitious international gatherings ever, is simple.

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It is a celebration of the remarkable accomplishments of the 19th century—accomplishments that have dramatically changed society and the lot of the common man. But its horizons extend beyond the century just completed to the exciting prospects for the 20th century ahead.

To set the scene for the mood and emphasis of the exposition, we must briefly go back further in time. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Europe in the latter part of the 18th century, provided a sudden acceleration in technical development.

With the new steam engine as a basis, factories were rapidly transformed and the railways developed. During the 19th century the revolution continued apace and spread from Europe to the world. Understanding of electricity advanced and, with the invention of the dynamo, a whole new world of power and possibilities rapidly opened up.

In James Maxwell developed his theory of electromagnetic waves, and by the late s Marconi was busy inventing wireless telegraphy. In the next few years Marie and Pierre Curie carried out their pioneering work on radioactivity using radium.

An analysis of the expectations of the problems at the turn of the century

The Paris Exposition, perhaps more than anything else, captured this sense of newly available powers. Electricity and the dynamo were much in evidence.

The 19th century may have belonged to Great Britain and the European powers, but the United States was developing fast. It grew from 16 states in to 45 bywhile its population grew from 5 million to 76 million.

The 20th century has far exceeded expectations for its progress as the newly discovered powers of one hundred years ago have been developed, refined and implemented on a wide scale.

In he conducted the first artificially induced nuclear reaction, which inspired succeeding generations of scientists to further examine the nature and properties of radiation and other nuclear phenomena. The examination of the minutiae of matter progressively revealed the secrets of the very building blocks of matter, with enormous ramifications for greater understanding and advancement.

In developed countries, electric power for industry and the home became universally available—fueled by coal, oil, gas and nuclear generating plants. And with that power has come every conceivable kind of gadget and appliance to make life easier and more enjoyable—the radio, the television, the vacuum cleaner, the refrigerator, the washing machine, the microwave oven, the record player, the tape deck, the food processor, to name but a few examples.

And so we have the Walkman, the calculator, the cell phone and the laptop computer. It was the 19th-century ideas of Charles Babbage, who in conceived of building a large machine that would execute extended sequences of operations, that led to the development of the computer.

Mankind now had a radical tool with which to advance even faster than before. If we had had similar progress in automotive technology, today we could buy a Lexus for about two dollars. According to Tobias, if we had had similar progress in automotive technology, today we could buy a Lexus for about two dollars.


Today every conceivable type of digital diversion—music, education, movies, sports and other entertainment—can be summoned at the touch of a button to fulfill our every whim. We take these diversions with us wherever we go; they share our homes, our planes, our trucks and our automobiles.

Satellite- and cable-based digital television and radio beam multiple channels into our homes, now heard with the latest stereo surround-sound effects. Compact disc players, audio cassette players, video players, digital still and video cameras and more—all abound to feed an ever hungry public eager to experience the latest advances.

We enjoy crystal-clear telephone communication—thanks to satellite, microwave and fiber-optic technology—to almost every corner of the globe. And the burgeoning Internet promises to further revolutionize the way we communicate, shop, do business and obtain previously inaccessible information.

There was a marked uncertainty caused by advancing discoveries, and it was unsettling. Around the turn of the century in Berlin, Max Planck was undermining traditional views of physics—views that had stood since the time of Descartes and Newton in the 17th and 18th centuries—with his study of heat radiation and the development of quantum theory.

Albert Einstein, famous for developing these ideas into his theories of relativity, acknowledged that a fundamental crisis in physics was under way at the turn of the century. This crisis was to have a profound effect on scientific developments as the century progressed.

Other ideas that were to develop, progress and dominate thinking throughout the 20th century—questionable ideas that would dramatically transform society, arguably for the worse—had already been proposed.

As the Industrial Revolution progressed throughout the 19th century, major concerns surfaced about the relationship between capital and labor.The process at Ellis Island in NYC required a physical exam and government inspection of documents.

Thus, they blamed it for problems such as urban crime, poverty and high infant mortality rates. Prohibition of alcohol in the 19th century was increasingly occurring. The WCTU abandoned the boycott in It was after an independent lab made an analysis. The lab reported that a bottle of root beer had as much alcohol as half a loaf of. Over the past 15 years, I’ve been studying how companies create strategy—the most important responsibility of senior executives. Many corporations, I find, have replaced the annual top-down. In probability theory, the expected value of a random variable, intuitively, is the long-run average value of repetitions of the experiment it example, the expected value in rolling a six-sided die is , because the average of all the numbers that come up in an extremely large number of rolls is close to Less roughly, the law of large numbers states that the arithmetic.

As the major immigration station in the US at the turn of the century, nearly 20 million immigrants passed through Ellis Island. Immigrants arriving from Asia gained admission at Angel Island in San Francisco Bay.

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Articles for New Whither Innovation?: Why Open Systems Architecture May Deliver on the False Promise of Public-Private Partnerships. Complexity characterises the behaviour of a system or model whose components interact in multiple ways and follow local rules, meaning there is no reasonable higher instruction to define the various possible interactions..

The term is generally used to characterize something with many parts where those parts interact with each other in multiple ways, culminating in a higher order of emergence. Over the past 15 years, I’ve been studying how companies create strategy—the most important responsibility of senior executives.

Many corporations, I find, have replaced the annual top-down.

Turn of the Century Immigration