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This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Golf, a global sport enjoyed by people of all ages and abilities, involves relatively long periods of low intensity exercise interspersed with short bursts of high intensity activity.
To meet the physical demands of full swing shots and the mental and physical demands of putting and walking the course, it is frequently recommended that golfers undertake golf-specific exercise programs.
Biomechanics, motor learning, and motor control research has increased the understanding of the physical requirements of the game, and using this knowledge, exercise programs aimed at improving golf performance have been developed.
This paper discusses how biomechanical and motor control research has informed current practice and discusses how emerging sophisticated tools and research designs may better assist golfers improve their performance.
It is estimated that worldwide between 55 and 80 million people from at least countries play golf1 3, with the more avid golfers playing more than once a week, every week of the year.
The vast majority of people who play golf are amateur golfers, with only a very small proportion being considered elite amateurs and fewer still are professional golfers.
Irrespective of whether a golfer is an amateur or a professional, the goal is the same - to complete a round of golf in as few strokes shots as possible and, from a longevity perspective, continue to enjoy the game as pain and injury free as possible.
The game of golf Golf is a sport that involves a relatively long duration of low intensity activity interspersed with short bursts of high intensity activity. Golf courses vary in length and terrain, so a round of 18 holes can take between 3. In contrast to the relatively low intensity demand of the rest of the game, a full swing action requires a rapid expenditure of energy.
For example, professional golfers perform a swing with a driver in 1. In contrast to full swings, the putting stroke requires minimal body movement but involves the greatest degree of sustained trunk inclination and sagittal flexion compared with shots with other clubs 6.
Researchers and clinicians wanting to optimise performance and prevent golf injury have hypothesised that specific golf exercise programs are necessary to meet the physical demands of both full swing shots and the potential fatigue associated with putting or walking 13 Biomechanical investigations of the golf swing The landmark work of Cochran and Stobbs 15 in employed high-speed filming techniques to examine the components of the golf swing, ball aerodynamics, and equipment dynamics.
Since then, there has been a vast range of biomechanical studies that have examined the highly complex, multi joint movements involved in the golf swing.
Researchers have used 2D and 3D methods, including high speed video 16optoelectronic 1217 - 19 and electromagnetic motion tracking systems 2021computer modelling 22force plates 23 - 25wireless inertial sensors 26and electromyography27 31 to gain insight into and quantify the fundamental elements of the swing.
The majority of studies have been conducted in laboratory settings and most have employed indirect measures of golf performance such as club head velocity CHV and ball launch characteristics 182332 Laboratory based studies have clear advantages, including ease of standardisation, greater environmental control, and the degree of accuracy possible with some indoor motion analysis systems.
On the other hand, swinging a golf club indoors surrounded by expensive equipment may not reflect what happens on the golf course, and there is concern that the indirect measures of performance used in laboratory conditions may provide incomplete information about actual golf performance.
Some studies have been conducted outdoors and on golf courses 634 ; however, more research is needed to examine how golfers perform their swing on the course, over a round of golf, and under competition conditions and how these findings relate to what occurs in laboratory settings.
Not only will these types of studies provide ecologically valid biomechanical information, but they will also provide more specific information about the physical demands of the sport and how environmental or other factors, such as pressure or fatigue, affect golf performance.
Due to the importance of the full swing, particularly in driving performance 32and perhaps because of the fact that this stroke could be considered as having the most repeatable intention to hit the ball as far and straight as possible most kinematic studies have concentrated on full swing kinematics.
In spite of the golf swing being dynamic by nature, many of these studies have measured parameters e. Collectively, findings have provided valuable insights into, for example, the magnitude of thorax and pelvis movement when high CHV are produced 73536differences in segmental angular velocities between skilled and less skilled golfers 3738and the importance of the magnitude, sequencing, and timing of segmental motion 3539 The results have helped inform research investigating physical characteristics required for skilled golf performance.
With the increasing awareness of the importance of movement variability in skilled performance41 43, there has been growing interest in investigating the complex segment and intersegmental coordination that occurs during the full swing44 Movement variability can be described as the normal variations that occur in motor performance across multiple repetitions of a task Historically, movement variability observed in skilled sporting tasks was considered "noise" or error and therefore undesirable.
It is now recognised that variability has a functional role and does not necessarily result in outcome variability 4145 That is, there is greater understanding of the large number of constraints that interact to shape movement behaviours during sporting endeavours, including body properties, environmental conditions, and tasks, and that highly skilled performers demonstrate the necessary flexibility and adaptability to operate proficiently in a variety of learning and performance contexts 42 Movement variability in the downswing of skilled male and female golfers was investigated by Horan et al.
Despite variability in the kinematics of the thorax and pelvis as well as variability in thorax pelvis coupling at the midpoint of the downswing and at ball contact, both males and females achieved highly consistent club and hand trajectories at ball contact.
Interestingly, females were found to have greater variability in thorax pelvis coupling than males. While physiological measures were not directly measured, the differences may have been due to differences in factors such as strength or flexibility or that male and female golfers adopted different motor control strategies to achieve consistent performance.
These authors found that a group of highly skilled golfers maintained consistency of ball speed despite variability in movement of individual body segments during the swing. Variability of movement of the individual body segments are integrated to produce a reduced variability in the club head trajectory, which in turn results in an even smaller variability in the club head on contact with the ball.
Additionally, Tucker et al. Taken collectively, emerging evidence supports the notions of 1 inter player variability, i.Here is an activity that helps to understand that: Ask particpants to think about something that gives them stress.
Ask them to think various consequences and reactions that might take place. They keep thinking about the same for approximately 5 minutes. You may give them directions to intensify the thought.
9 Golf Workouts That Will Improve Your Game Tremendously Golfers often seek to improve their game by buying new equipment, playing more golf, or taking lessons. Although these are some possible solutions, there are many times our golf game is not a reflection of our skill as a .
Playing golf is an individual sport, but creating a golf course takes many different people working together to reach a common goal. In this activity each person can contribute unique ideas and listen to the ideas of others to make a great golf course.
The mind is the most formidable opponent a golfer confronts, so mastering the game of mental golf is essential. The mind can be a golfer's best friend, helping to develop the mechanics of a smooth. An icebreaker game, activity, or exercise is a great way to kick off a class, workshop, meeting, or group gathering.
Icebreakers can: Serve as introductions for strangers. EFT for Golf - Improve your score. Master the Mental Game course comes with a 30 Day Full Money Back Guarantee!
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